WATER MANAGEMENT FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Water is a naturally occurring substance found on the land surface, in the atmosphere and underground, it is colorless, tasteless, and odorless and it is usually in the liquid and solid form.
There is no life on the Earth without water, so water plays a crucial role in the existence of human beings and other animals as well as in their activities.
Economic Uses and Importance of water
How long distance from water source affects the girl child.
- Water is used to clean clothes and other things (domestic use)
- Water is used in Industries for different purposes such as washing raw materials (used in Industries).
- Water is used in agriculture( for irrigation and other activities)
- Water is a key component of the electricity generation process (generation of hydroelectricity).
- Water is used for recreation purposes such as swimming.
- Water facilitates the growth and development of the fishing industry
- People who sell water in estate earn income from these activities.
River Basin development
- They lack enough time for studies
- Those who are out of school become illiterates hence in turn to early marriage
- They lack enough time for playing with others.
- They may be attacked by dangerous animals such as snakes
- They can be raped.
- It can result in poor performance in the classroom.
A river basin is a land that is drained by a river and its tributaries. River basin development is, therefore, the sustainable use of river basin resources for economic gain.
Conditions for development of River Basin
In order for the river basin development to take place, the following conditions must be met.
Advantages/ Benefits of River basin development
- River basin has to cover a substantially large area
- The volume of the main river and its tributaries have to be large
- The impact of the development should not negatively affect the people in the locality or the ecosystem
- There should be adequate funds to ensure successful development.
- Availability of land to set up offices and other necessary buildings and facilities.
RUFIJI BASIN DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY (RUBADA)
- It improves agricultural practices.
- It ensures environment conservation
- It influences the development of hydro-electric power
- Improvement of transport in the area
- Create employment opportunities
- Lead to the improvement of water supply.
Rufiji is the largest river in Tanzania, it starts in the southern highlands and it has many tributaries such as The Great Ruaha River and ends in the Indian Ocean.
The Rufiji river basin covers mainly the coastal regions, Morogoro, Mbeya, Iringa and some parts of Dodoma and Ruvuma. It consists of waterfalls as well as ox-bow lakes. It has a variety of animals, vegetation and bird species. It has different resources including water, oil, natural gas, flora and fauna and fertile arable land.
It has a good climatic condition characterized by the adequate rainfall and warm temperatures.
Some of the main economic activities carried out within the basin include; agriculture (farming), hydroelectric power generation, irrigation, fishing, and navigation.
The Rufiji basin development authority (RUBADA) is a parastatal which was set in 1975 to oversee the development of the Rufiji River basin.
It was charged with the task of developing hydropower and other activities such as forestry, agriculture, tourism and transport in the river basin.
Before carrying out any extensive economic activities in the basin an individual or company has to register with the authority.
Importance/ Benefits of Rufiji basin development Authority (RUBADA)
Problem faced by the Rufiji Basin Development Authority (RUBADA)
- Hydro-power generation of Kidatu and Mtera
- Encourage and development of tourism.
- Creation of employment opportunities.
- Improvement of agricultural production due to irrigation technology
The Prosperity of the Authority
- Inadequate capital
- Low level of technology
- Rural-Urban migration
- Poor transport and communication infrastructure.
- Lack of support from the low communities.
- Fluctuating water level.
The River Basin development authority has great potentials for growth, these potentials will only be realized if the authority will put together large amount of capital and receive greater support from the government and the local government; The following are the potentials which can be found from this Authority
The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
- Hydroelectric power generations
The Tennessee valley refers to the drainage basin of the Tennessee River in the USA. The basin is spread across the states of Tennessee, Alabama, North Caroline, Georgia, Mississippi, and Virginia.
Benefits of The TVA
- The construction of dams and planting trees helped to control hooding in the valley.
- Through irrigation, the authority has managed to increase agricultural production in the farms within the basin.
- The hydroelectric, nuclear and fossil fuel power plants developed by the authority provide electricity to home and Industrial in the basin.
- The availability of water, land, and electricity made available by the authority has attracted investments in various industries.
- The activities of the authority have led to the creation of job opportunities
- There has been urbanization of areas within the basin.
Land reclamation refers to efforts to make land that was previously unproductive to be useful.
It may also be described as the process of converting the wasteland into a land that can be used for economic activities and settlement
It may also involve reclaiming land from the sea or desert areas into arable areas or clean dense vegetation for agriculture and settlement.
The main aims of Land reclamation
Land Reclamation techniques
- To increase the size of land available for agricultural purposes.
- To increase the size of land availability for human settlement.
- To make available more land for the establishment of industrial and offices.
- To be in proximity to resources in order to be able to gainfully utilize them.
The technique used depends on the state of the landIrrigationAfforestationDrainage
cleaning of vegetation for controlling pests
Land reclamation in Tanzania
Several efforts have been made to reclaim wasteland in Tanzania. This has taken place in several regions.
Some of these efforts include the followings;
-Afforestation and agroforestry
-Clearing of vegetation
SUSTAINABLE USE OF WATER RESOURCES
Water found both on the surface of the earth and underground. Underground water is the water below the surface of the earth. There are different types of underground water. The following are the main types of underground water;
- Connate water (fossil water) - This is the water trapped in the pores of rocks during the formation of the rocks.
- Meteoric water - This is the type of underground water which originates from rainfall and other forms of precipitation such as hail, storms, and snowfall.
- Juvenile water(magmatic water) - This is the type of water that is brought closer to the earth surface due to the volcanic activities.
- Oceanic water - This is the underground water that results from seepage of the ocean water into the ground.
Underground water can be tapped and put to various uses.
Both domestic and industrial purposes use underground water such as washing clothes, bathing, watering animals and plants and cleaning houses.
Ways of tapping underground water
Resources obtained from water
- Digging wells
- Where the water occurs very close to the surface the soil may be scooped to the water.
- Underground water may be naturally especially to the form of springs or oases in the desert
- Fish and other reliable water creature such as prawns.
- Sand which is used in building and construction
- Hydropower which is used to generate electricity
- Salt which is used domestically as well as industries
- Decorative items such as cowry shell
Pollution refers to the introduction of a harmful substance into the environment.
Water pollution, therefore, refers to the introduction of a harmful substance into water bodies.
Sources of water pollution
Conservation of water resources
- Industrial wastes, for example, gaseous, oil and chemicals.
- Domestic waste of sewage, dirty water used for washing food remains dead animals, plastics, and insect sides
- Agricultural chemicals such as insect sides, fertilizers, pests, and herbicides
- Oil spills it occurs during transportation of the oil.
- An extensive construction such as large building and construction projects may lead to water pollution
Problems caused by extraction of water resources
- Avoiding wastage
- Controlling pollution
- Protection of water catchment
- Sewage treatment
- Controlling use of agricultural chemicals
- Immediate cleanup
Solutions to these problems
- Sand harvesting may lead to loss of soil for the growth of plant life in the water bodies
- Hydropower harvesting requires the building of dam
- Monitoring the nets used by fishermen.
- Restricting fishing in some areas to allow fish to breed and increase in number.
- Encouraging people to practice fish farming so as to reduce pressure on natural water bodies such as rivers and lakes.
- Restricting or controlling sand harvesting to ensure that aquatic life is not destroyed or interfered.