This method consists pieces of papers with pre-prepared questions given to the respondents to be answered. They consist the list of questions that are related to topics and this it used to obtain data. Questions can inform of an open-ended questionnaire that gives the wide range of explanations to the respondents, another form is closed ended questionnaire that gives the limitation to the respondents, that means it needs direct answers example yes or no, right or wrong. The researcher must also know how the information obtained from each questionnaire item will be analyzed.
ADVANTAGES OF QUESTIONNAIRES
Data can be collected as a first- hand
A research gets a lot of information from many respondents and from different areas of the country.
The omission of names makes Respondent respond to the questionnaire. Thus make the response rates higher than one who includes the names of the respondents.
It save times when a closed-ended questionnaire is used: one does not need to be physically present
The research is in a position to dispel any fear that the respondent might have.
Questionnaires are useful in the extraction of information on a broad of field work topic.
DIS-ADVANTAGES OF QUESTIONNAIRES
Mostly are used by literacy people that lead to ignoring those who are illiteracy such as those who are unable to read and write.
Sometimes it results to a misunderstanding of questions to the respondent. Thus the respondent will answer the way he/she understand the questions so this can lead to wrong data given.
Questionnaires are inappropriate when there is a language barrier between researcher and respondent. That happen when researcher use ambiguous language and formulation of sentence if these happen it lead to inappropriate questionnaire
It is difficult to get respondent willing because they have their daily routine interrupted because of research
It is difficult to the researcher to establish authenticity [deeply understanding] of some response of respondent.
It acquired high skills in a formulation of questions in order to avoid misunderstanding to the respondents.
It is expensive to conduct the research due to fact that researcher should travel, need money to construct the questions that preparations.
THE MAJOR TYPES OF QUESTIONNAIRE
There are two major Types of Questionnaire;
• Closed-ended questionnaire
• Open-ended questionnaire.
Closed-ended questionnaires: Refers to questions which are accompanied by a list of all possible alternatives from which respondents select the answers that the best describes their situations. This means that closed-ended questionnaire limit the respondent that create the boundary in the answer provided by respondent also it needs strictly answer example yes or no, true or false.An example of the closed-ended questionnaire the first president of Tanzania is J.K Nyerere:
ADVANTAGE OF CLOSED ENDED QUESTIONNAIRE
Closed-ended questionnaire are easy to analyze since they are in an immediately usable form
They are easy to administer because each item is followed by alternative answers
They are economical to use since they save finance and time.
DISADVANTAGE OF CLOSED ENDED QUESTIONNAIRE
They are more difficult to construct because categories must be well sorted out
Responses are limited and the respondent is compelled to answer questions
According to the research choice
Open-ended questionnaire: refers to the questions which give the respondent complete freedom of response. This free response question permits an individual to respond in his or her own words. The amount of space provided is, however, a good indicator of whether a brief or long answer is desired. Example: why do you study geography?
ADVANTAGES OF OPEN ENDED QUESTIONNAIRE
• It provides wide range of responses .it acquired a respondent to give his or her own views and this can be direct or indirect.
• The open-ended questionnaire is easy to construct because the researcher does not labor to come up with appropriate response category.
• The respondent response may give insight into his or her feelings background, motivation, interest, and decisions
• The open-ended questionnaire can stimulate a person to think about his feeling or motives and to express what is considered to be most important.
DIS- ADVANTAGES OF OPEN ENDED QUESTIONNAIRE
• The response that is given may be difficult to categories and hence difficult to analyze quantitatively. Sometimes the information cannot categories it is advisable to include it is in the study in narrative form. Also, some open-ended questionnaire are useful for qualitative analysis
• Responding to the open-ended questionnaire is time-consuming. This may put off some respondent.