There are different definition of research have been given out by geographers/researchers, the following are some of those definitions;
Objectives of conducting research
- Research is the scientific and systematic way of investigating information aimed at discovering new theories.
- Research is the act of investigating and gathering information in order to establish facts and reach the new conclusions.
- Research is a systematic and scientific way of searching the truth.
There are various objectives which caused geographers decide to carry out a research, the following are the objectives of conducting a research;
[*]To search for a new knowledge or skills
[*]To become familiar with a certain phenomenon such as causes of drought in certain places
[*]To develop theories on socio-economic and political phenomena
[*]To test hypothesis so as to find out their reliability and validity with the given cultural settings
[*]To describe or explain certain phenomena
[*]To find solutions towards different problems which have various impacts to human being and his surroundings
[*]To make evaluation about a certain issue e.g. Academic issue
TYPES OF RESEARCH
Different types of research have been suggested by researchers, the following are some of them;
-this is the type of research conducted in order to develop a certain scientific knowledge. It is always done through verification of theories.
This type of research is known as Academic/pure or fundamental research
-Is the type of research conducted in order to find solution to a certain problem in the society for example market problem, hunger, diseases and other of the same reflection
-This is the research conducted with the purpose of measuring or assessing the achievement of a certain scientific practice
- The type of research which uses facts already available and analyzed these facts to make a critical evaluation of the material
- This study life process that is universal in their application to scientific knowledge.
– The type of research which focuses on the measurement of quantity. It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity for example population data. It tries to answer the question of how many, how much etc.
- The type of research focuses on qualitative phenomena.It is applicable to the phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quality, also the data collected are purely in form of description, this is sometimes called descriptive research
–This is the type of research relies on intensive interpretation and come up with conclusions which are capable of being verified through observation or experiment
– The type of research conducted when researchers explore things like gold, iron ores, diamond etc.
- Is a research that explains about certain social phenomena.
IMPORTANCE/SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH
There are different importance of research as explained by geographers, the following are some of those;
STAGES/WAYS OF CONDUCTING RESEARCH
- It provides evidence that can be used by policy makers
- Research help us to identify different problems and find solution towards them
- Research inculcates scientific and inductive thinking and promotes the global habits of thinking and organization
- Research provides intellectual satisfaction of social relationships between phenomena through scientific and systematic study
- Research provide reliable information to the data bank
- Research enables members of the society to be well informed about their social surroundings
- Research findings are used in different projects such as economic projects example agriculture
- Research help scholars to receive their awards such us certificates, diploma and degree holding
There are various stages involved in conducting a research, this is to say that for any good research should fall on these stages;
- Problem identification.The problem is the question which needs to be answered, research problem is the question which needs to be answered through data collection
- Literature review, this is the reading of various publication, readings or documents to know what other people say about what you are investigating.It involves reading things like books, magazines, pamphlets, and newspapers
- Hypothesis formulation. This is an assumption about what one expects to find out from the field. It can be true or false
There are two types of Hypothesis
[*]Alternative hypothesis, this show positive expectations or results
[*]Null hypothesis, this show negative expectation or results
- . Research design. This is the arrangement of conditions for collections for analysis of data. It is the conceptual structure within which the study is conducted. It is sometimes called a framework of a research.It involves participants of the study as well as methods to be used.
- . Data collection, refer to the collection of various information in the field to enrich research, there are two forms of geographical data which are primary and secondary data, they are collected through various ways such as interview, observation, focus group discussion and questionnaire.
- Data analysis, this is the process of converting information/data obtained into sensible ideas
- Data interpretation and presentation, after getting correct information the study or topic the data obtained are interpreted and presented in different ways such as writing, diagram charts, and graphs.