This was an imperialist meeting held in the city of Berlin in Germany under the German chancellor Otto Von Bismarck from 15th
November 1884 to 26th
February 1885. The major aim of the conference was to settle or resolve the conflicts that arose among the European powers who were claiming to take the different region in Africa.
The capitalist nations which attended the meeting included France, Portugal, Britain, Spain, Germany, Belgium, and Italy. Denmark and U.S.A attended the meeting as observers. There were no African leaders who attended the meeting.
OBJECTIVES OF BERLIN CONFERENCE
RESOLUTIONS/AGREEMENT OF THE BERLIN CONFERENCE
- To discuss and settle European quarrels over areas in Africa
- To establish rule of Effective control of Africa
- To discuss the issues of the slave trade and suggest the methods to abolish it.
EVALUATION OF THE RESOLUTION OF BERLIN CONFERENCE OF 1884-1885
- Each power which gains territory in Africa should notify other European powers for recognition. This was done in order to avoid clashes among the Capitalist powers.
- Congo and Niger River were left free for all European powers to use for trade and navigation activities.
- Any power that had occupied an area in Africa was supposed to abolish the slave trade.
- Missionaries were allowed to have free access to interior parts of Africa for civilization and abolition of slave trade.
SIGNIFICANCES/IMPORTANCE OF BERLIN CONFERENCE TO AFRICA
- It managed to divide the Africa continent among the imperialist powers peacefully.
- European powers managed to establish their authority in their areas of influence.
- Colonial power committed themselves to fight against any illegal business in the continent, hence slave trade was abolished.
- It legitimated the occupation and authority of different European powers in Africa.
IMPACTS OF THE BERLIN CONFERENCE ON EUROPEAN NATIONS
- It paved the way for the colonial rule in Africa
- African lost her political, social and economic freedom.
- European powers agreed to safeguard and protect white Christianity missionaries.
- It led to the effective occupation of the Africa continent.
- It led to the introduction of legitimate trade which was based on unequal exchange and caused the exploitation of African resources.
- Physical boundaries were drawn during this period and ignored ethnic origin.
- It solved the Congo crisis as it was possible to send the European nations into the war.
- Led to the penetration of commercial companies in the interior of Africa.
- The conference led to the economic growth for most of the European nations since they were assured a maximum supply of raw materials, cheap labor, and market for their industrial manufactured goods.
- The conference brought a form of prestige to most of the imperial power due to the acquisition of colonies in Africa.
- The conference gave power to the European to create boundaries. The division of some ethnic group between different states. These boundaries contributed to conflicts in most countries in Africa.
- The conference included high degrees of unity, confidence, and diplomacy among this European power in order to isolate the Africa.
*It was agreed that the European powers were not supposed to have any alliances with Africa state against another European power.