human language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols that used by human to communicate
this is according to sir. Helman Batibo
so when talking about the dictinctive characteristics of human language or sometimes this question is asked as what are the characteristics of human language .
these are some of them
1.is Arbitrariness - this term has two concepts, 1st is refers to the hazardous occurrence of human language by meaning that there had no any meeting that aimed to create a human language hence is arbitrariness
2nd is the absence of direct relationship between sound symbols from a physical referent. It may contradict you by that expression
well this mean human language is in form of sounds not inform of tangible(physical) thing. so there's no any relationship between dog and an animal Dog. i think of that u' ve understood it
2nd is discreteness, this means that human language is produced in discrete sounds not as other animals do.
fore example when saying "i want to eat a food" say it loud.
yap so you hear a discrete(individual,not continuous) sound are produced. this is different from Dog who cries WuWuWu continuously or a cow mooooooo! mooooo! but a human language involves separate syllables articulation and in sentence level after word we put a space and then articulate another word
3rd is learnability, human language is not in genetic DNA (not born in child ) but a child has to learn it from his community this is different from other animals and birds who born with their sounds already. so they do not learn it practically.
human language is able to create and make unlimited numbers of sentences even those you have not yet heard before. this is possible because human language is programmatically and grammatically ruled.
4th is Interchangeability, human language is said to have a characteristic of interchangeability in a meaning that it involves a process of a speaker to speak while a listener is listening and later a listener reply by becoming a speaker and a first speaker to became a listener. so human language is speak and reply act.
5th comes to the specialization of a human language. Now here is a complex communication system which facilitate all spheres of communication needs. it is specialized into education language,science language,ritual language and many others according to the register language used.
6th is a system ness of human language
a language of human(a system of arbitrary vocal symbol) is made of many sub-system in it. Human language is a compact of many sub-systems in it. Those are phases,morphemes,clauses,sentences,words and many others
7th is displacement of language system used by man. this is a trend of condition or situation of human language to be able to express past and future times. It can talk about past even(memorials) also about future events(revelations) so human language displaces those times.
also is cultural transmission , As human language is bounded with a particular culture of a society. so language is a tool to express a culture of a certain society. It helps one to transmit from or to another culture. This is evidenced by use of English as lingua franca of France many societies used the language of other societies has automatically transformed the culture of that language to their own
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THIS IS FOR KNOWLEDGE PURPOSE ONLY