Social Organization and production
Social Organization refers to the way individuals within a group relate to each other in order to live harmoniously. Production is the process by which people create goods in order to satisfy their needs. It include mining, crop cultivation and manufacturing of product.
The following are different types of Social Organization and production
This refers to the system whereby people lived together and practiced common ownership of major means of production. Communalism is believed to originate from the earliest stage of human evolution and during this time people lived by hunting and gathering activities, they lived in small groups.
Characteristics of Primitive communalism
- No social classes, People lived equally
- All resources were owned communally
- People worked owned communally
- People working together using communalism
- No specialization all people assisted in Equally
- Simple technology was used
- Full democracy in decision making in society
- No exploitation
This is an economic system and first exploitative mode of production whereby there was the ownership and use of slaves in their economic activities.
Uses of Slaves
Characteristics of Slavery
- To generate wealth to slave owners.
- It was considered as a sign of status and prestige in the society.
- It was used to generate political power.
- The defeated communities in war could give slaves as a tributes to the Victorians.
- They were used for public works such as building of roads and in mining activities.
- Presence of two classes i.e. slaves and slave masters
- Slaves were regarded as personal properties
- There was private ownership of major means of production
- Slave families were also regarded as their masters properties
- There was higher in production compared to production in primitive communalism
This was the system of production whereby land became the major means of production, under this mode of production there was landowners and landless people. Most of the centralized states in Africa based on feudalism mode of production.
Characteristics of Feudalism
Merits of Feudalism
- Land was owned by rich and powerful people
- There was two classes of people i.e. landowners and landless
- There was exploitation of peasants by landlords
- Peasants paid rent/tributes to their landlord in various forms such as rent in kind (payments in term of goods) and rent in labor ( Doing work to landlord farms)
- Division of labor based on gender, men performed military duties and clearing of lands while women did the home activities and harvesting.
- There was the formation of institutions such as arms and prisons
Demerits of Feudalism
- The weaker class were protected by king or land owners.
- The land owners gave all poor people a piece of land to cultivate.
- There was a peace in the state as the rich class maintained laws and order.
- Feudal societies were very organised.
- Rich exploited poor in term of labor force.
- Only few people in the society owned land.
- There was inequality in society between rich and poor people.
- Peasants were forced to take military duties so endangered their lives for their land lord.
- It encouraged intercommunity warfare.