SUSTAINABLE USE OF MINING
Mining is the process of extracting minerals and fossils fuels from the earth’s surface. Sustainable mining refers to the controlled extraction of minerals to ensure that there are minerals do not run out too fast.
Types of Mining Industries
Metal mining Industries
- Metal mining Industries
- Non-Metal mining Industries
This type of mining Industry involves extraction of different kinds of metals such as Gold, copper, and Iron. These Industries can further be divided into different sub-industries such as Gold mining, iron mining and Copper mining Industries.
These are the industries concentrated on the extraction of minerals such as oil, rocks, diamond, and salt and all other non-metal minerals fall under this type of mining.
Outline of the Distribution of the minerals in the World
This is an organic mineral with a long history of being used by man. It is the source of heat/ energy in the domestic activities.
Leading countries with the presence of Coal is China (30%), USA (20%) and South Africa (4%). Tanzania also has coal deposits in Mchuchuma area.
It is the source of heat and lighting, also it is used as lubricants for some machines, It is the raw material for several manufacturing industries and it is used for running machines such as vehicles. It occurs as a cruel oil which is then processed to get several products such as diesel, lubricants, kerosene and aviation fuel.
Leading countries producers of Petroleum are Saudi Arabia, Russia, United Arab Emirates, Nigeria, and Angola.
Iron ores are processed in the smelting process to come up with iron which is the most commonly used metal.
The world leading countries are China, Brazil, Australia, USA and South Africa.
Diamond is the hard type of stone which is put to various uses. Polished diamonds are used for the aesthetic purpose to make things such as rings, bracelets and neckless.
Major world Diamond producers are South Africa, Botswana, Russia and Australia.
In Tanzania Diamonds are mined at Mwadui and North West of Shinyanga.
Methods used in the process of Mining minerals
There are several methods of mining depending on the location of the minerals whether they are found closer to the Earth surface or deeper in the Earth’s crust. The following are some of those ways;
Importance of the mining industry to the economy of Tanzania
- Opencast method - This involves the removal of the earth or rock lying above the minerals.
- Underground mining - This method is employed in mining areas that lie deep below the surface of the earth.
- Alluvial or Placer mining - This method is mainly used in river valleys.
Effects of mining Industry to the Environment
- Create employment opportunities
- Mining industry influence the development of other sectors such as infrastructures and health sectors
- Provision of raw materials for the industries
- Also mining influence the development of trade activities.
Ways of minimizing the effects of Mining industry to the Environment
- Pollution- mining activities cause pollution to the environment in several ways such as blasting which cause noise pollution
- Also, Mining activities can cause Soil degradation
- It can cause deforestation
- It can lead to the desertification
- It can cause Global warming
Oil Production in the Middle East
- Enforcing laws which protect the environment
- Rehabilitation of land when the minerals have been exhausted
- Carrying out of the extensive research about the possible effects of carrying out of mining activities in a given area without licensing of such activities.
The Middle East is the largest producers of Oil in the world, it accounts for about a third of the total world production of oil.
The main producers of oil in these regions include Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Iran and the United Arab Emirates, others include Bahrain, Qatar, and Yemen. Most of these countries are the members of the organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). The drilling and transportation are mainly carried out by international companies from Europe and America. Part of the oil is refined in refineries within the Middle East while the rest is exported in crude form.
Advantages of Oil Production in the Middle East
Production of Natural Gas in Tanzania
- Employment opportunities
- Source of foreign exchange
- Improvement of social services
- Improvement of transport
- Provision of energy and power.
Natural gas is a product of fossilized organic materials, it is used for various purposes. The most common uses of natural gas are domestic purposes and commercial and for heating. Tanzania has recently managed to exploit these minerals at Songosongo in Kilwa district in Lindi region. The gas is processed at Songosongo then transported via pipelines to various destinations.
Advantages of Natural gas Production in Tanzania
Disadvantage of Natural gas in Tanzania
- Natural gas is the source of employment in Tanzania
- It reduces the problem of moving among the youth to Dar es Salaam and other urban areas.
- Natural gas help in the production of electricity
- It promotes the development of Industries.
- It generates revenue for the government.
- Destruction and demolishing of settlement and farms to create land for the Natural gas project.
- As a non-renewable resource natural gas can be exhausted.