Introduction To Earth Geography Form 1 Notes

Post Reply 
Thread Rating:
  • 0 Votes - 0 Average
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
Share Topic: GooglePlus Facebook Twitter
Introduction To Earth Geography Form 1 Notes
MyElimu Offline

Posts: 199
Thanks Given: 7
Thanks Received: 91 in 58 posts
Joined: Feb 2014
Reputation: 1

Points: -269.41Points
Country: Tanzania
Post: #1
Not Solved Post Icon Introduction To Earth Geography Form 1 Notes

[Image: ny6vdc.png]
Introduction to the Earth
  [Image: wk1yki.png]

Introduction to the Earth
•The Environmental Spheres
•The Size and Shape of the Earth•The Geographic Grid 

The Environmental Spheres

Lithosphere-describes the solid inorganic portion of the Earth (composed of rocks, minerals and elements). It can be regarded as the outer surface and interior of the solid Earth.Atmosphere-is the vast gaseous envelope of air that surrounds the Earth. Its boundaries are not easily defined. The atmosphere contains a complex system of gases and suspended particles that behave in many ways like fluids. Many of its constituents are derived from the Earth by way of chemical and biochemical reactions.

Hydrosphere-describes the waters of the Earth (see the hydrologic cycle). Water exists on the Earth in various stores, including the atmosphere, oceans, lakes, rivers, soils, glaciers, and groundwater. Water moves from one store to another by way of: evaporation, condensation,
runoff, precipitation, infiltration and groundwater flow.

Biosphere-consists of all living things, plant and animal. This zone is characterized by life in profusion, diversity, and ingenious complexity. Cycling of matter in this sphere involves not only metabolic reactions in organisms, but also many abiotic chemical reactions.
All of these spheres are interrelated by dynamic interactions (biogeochemical cycling)
The Size and Shape of the Earth
Pythagorus (ca. 580 -500 B.C., Greek) -first to note spherical character of the earth. This principle was widely accepted by 1st Century A.D. Columbus, for example, was well aware of sphericity of earth.

How to proof sphericity?

    Ships “sinking” below the horizon as they sail into distance (Pythagorous).Curved shadow cast by earth during eclipse (Pythagorous).
        Aerial/Space PhotosSunsets are gradualNavigation, which uses spherical trigonometry, works.North Star moves with latitude.
          However, Pythagorous assumed spherical perfection. Sir Isaac Newton (1687) reasoned that sphere not possible since earth rotation is maximized at the equator and this should produce a ‘bulge.’ He called earth an oblate spheroid(think of spinning water balloon; Jupiter is egg-shaped enough to be noticeable through inexpensive telescope).

          Earth Dimensions
          diameter: 8,000 miles (12,900 km)
          circumference =  d or 3.14 x 8,000 = 25,000 miles
          Geoid -conceptualizes earth w/o imperfections.
          [Image: 10gig5s.png]

          In fact, if radius of earth was 30 story building, Mt. Everest would be only a single brick in height.

          The Geographic Grid
          Latitude -angular measurement of distance north or south of the Equator.

          [Image: ic6xsi.png]

          Range: 0 -90 degrees N or S
          1o latitude = approx. 69 miles (25,000 mi. /360o).

          Important Parallels

          [Image: 1zgjyd.png]

          Parallel -Imaginary lines that connect points of equal latitude.
          These seven parallels represent special points where the Sun’s rays strike the earth.

          Longitude - the angular measurement of distance east or west of the Prime Meridian.
          Range: 0o-180oE or W
          Maximum value reached at International Date Line -180o
          East-west width of 1Olongitude for selected western North American cities:
          San Diego (32.5 N) = 57 miles; San Francisco (38 N) = 54 miles; Seattle (48 N) = 46 miles; Anchorage (60 N) = 35 miles
          Length of a Degree ofLongitude
          Los Angeles County: 34o N, 118o W
          Each degree is divided in 60 minutes(‘), thus we can locate Torrance at: 33o53’ N, 118o 19’ W
          Each minute is further divided into 60 seconds(‘’), thus we locate El Camino College at:
          33o 53’ 06” N, 118o 19’ 38” W
          At this point we are accurate to within 100 ft2.
          Degrees, Minutes, Seconds




          (This post was last modified: 09-20-2015 04:47 PM by MyElimu.)
          09-20-2015 04:43 PM
          Visit this user's website Find all posts by this user Add Thank You Quote this message in a reply
          Post Reply 

          Possibly Related Threads...
          Thread: Author Replies: Views: Last Post
          Post Icon O-LEVEL:  Topics za O Level Geography Form 1 - 4 MyElimu 8 24,160 12-14-2016 12:48 PM
          Last Post: Guest
            Notes Za Survey MjunguOnline 1 2,414 11-25-2016 01:47 PM
          Last Post: Gabby
            Geography Ice-qube Said Ndoragi 3 1,858 07-14-2016 12:49 AM
          Last Post: Given Isco
          Post Icon Settlement - O Level Geography MyElimu 1 2,054 04-19-2016 11:04 AM
          Last Post: wilmar
          Post Icon Form 4 Past Paper MyElimu 1 2,645 03-10-2016 11:24 PM
          Last Post: Suhaila Issack
          Post Icon Geography - Photography Interpretation Simplis Lakshi 0 3,029 06-25-2015 01:17 PM
          Last Post: Simplis Lakshi
            Geography Ndoroma Ndocatholic 0 1,090 06-25-2015 10:09 AM
          Last Post: Ndoroma Ndocatholic
          Post Icon Form Three Past Paper MyElimu 0 2,099 03-23-2015 11:34 AM
          Last Post: MyElimu
            Geography Dedan Karebu 0 1,131 11-23-2014 03:02 PM
          Last Post: Dedan Karebu
          Post Icon River Studies In Geography MyElimu 0 2,795 09-12-2014 12:51 PM
          Last Post: MyElimu

          User(s) browsing this thread: 1 Guest(s)
          @MyElimu @MyElimu @MyElimu