Starting from the 20th
century colonial Governments established a number of social services in Africa. Colonial economy. Examples of these colonial social services were:
- Colonial education
- Transport and communication
- Recreational services
- Water and electricity
- Health services
The aim of establishing these social services was to consolidate and facilitate colonization of Africa. That means they were built to favour the colonial Government in power.
1. COLONIAL EDUCATION
This was a type of education that was introduced by Europeans in Africa (this type of education was formal)This education was introduced to benefit the colonial Government and not Africans. It went together with the establishment of schools in areas with economic gains such as crop production areas.
Features of colonial education
Role of colonial education
- Colonial education was in pyramid shape that is the number of students who started continued be reduced while going to the higher levels.
- Schools were built on those areas with economic importance such as Kenya highlands due to the coffee production.
- Colonial education was discriminative in nature e.g. there were Asian schools, European schools and others for Africans.
- Colonial education was provided to the sons of African chiefs e.g. sons of Jumbes and few daughters obtained this type of education.
- Schools were built in urban areas and not rural areas. So as to favour the colonial Government.
- Education was basically on European culture e.g. training involved the usage of foreign language e.g. English, French etc.
Effects of colonial education
- The role of colonial education was to train Africans so they may be used as administrators at the lowest posts e.g. Messengers, clerks.
- Colonial education was introduced to train sons and daughters of European colonial masters together with Asians.
- It was to produce African puppets that were to favour the colonial Government.
Transport and communication
- It produced educated elites who started to organize their fellow Africans to fight for independence e.g. J.K Nyerere, Kwame Nkrumah, etc.
- Colonial education killed African skills at large these skills remained in theory.
- It produced classes that is class of educated people and those who were not educated
- Colonial education led to the destruction of African culture e.g. on dressing, eating, etc.
- Africans started to dream on obtaining white color jobs (education was aimed for employment).
Colonial Government built a number of roads, railways, telegraphs and harbours, airports etc.
Characteristics of colonial transport & communication infrastructure
Roles of colonial transport and communication
- Roads and Railways were built in areas with economic importance e.g. areas with labourers or areas with raw materials.
- In some cases communication systems e.g. telephones were introduced in urban and not rural areas
- Railways and roads were built directly to the coast (to simplify import and export trade).
(During the colonial era)
2. Recreational services
- It was useful for carrying raw materials from the interior to the coast and (imported) manufactured goods from coast to the interior.
- Roads and railways were useful for carrying administrators and military troops from one area to another.
- They were also useful for carrying labourers to those areas with colonial economic activities.
- It was useful for connecting the interior and urban (e.g. Roads and railways)
- They were useful for attracting Europeans e.g. Europeans settlers.
Colonial Governments built recreational centres such as hotels. These recreational centres were mostly built in urban areas so as to favour the colonial officials.
Characteristics of colonial recreational services
Roles of recreational services
- The recreational services were based on discrimination while they were built for Europeans and not Africans.
- They were built in urban areas or areas with economic gains such as areas with settlers.
3. Health services
- Recreational centers were opened to attract Europeans (e.g. hotels, theatres, etc.)
- They provided a meeting platform for the colonial masters meetings that were useful to consolidate and facilitate colonization of Africa.
In order to facilitate colonialism the colonial powers established health services such as hospitals and health centres.
Characteristics of colonial health services
i. They were widely found in urban areas and not rural areas because they were meant for the Europeans colonial masters and settlers.
ii. These health services focused mostly on prevention of diseases more than cure, this was due to technological limitations at the time.
iii. Health services were distributed in discrimination e.g. hospitals had different grades for different classes of people i.e. grades I, II, III.
Roles of colonial health services
Hospitals and health centres were opened to prevent and cure diseases for the European colonial masters, settlers and Africans labourers.All in all health services were established to favour the development of colonial economy in Africa.
4. Water and electricity
Colonial Governments started to introduce these services in areas with settlers or colonial officials.These services were introduced to attract more Europeans to Africa, the colonial masters hoped to attract more Europeans in Africa to expand their economic activities.